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Music Citations: Turabian/Chicago Style: Bibliography Tips

This guide will assist with formatting music citations using the Turabian/Chicago style. For more info, consult Turabian Manual: MUS REFPN203.T8 2007 or consult Chicago Manual online at:

More Tips

Use headline style: capitalize all words in a title when it's in English--even if the item itself does not capitalize those words. 

Always use curly quotation marks, rather than straight. Exercise caution when copying/pasting citations from other sources, as sometimes this changes the type of quotation mark used.

If you have a title *within* a journal article title, insert apostrophes outside of the nested title, instead of regular quotation marks.

Example: Smith, Toby. "Going the Distance: An Analysis of 'Going For Speed' That Will Blow Your Mind." Journal of Mind Blowing (etc)

Use Three Emdashes for Repeating Author Names

If your bibliography contains two items by the same author, do not repeat the author's name. Instead, replace the name with three emdashes followed by a period. For example:

Smith, Mary. Everybody Loves Em Dashes, Always. New York: Turabian University Press, 2011.

———. No Seriously, We All Love Em Dashes. New York: Turabian University Press, 2012.

If you're on a Mac, do shift option dash for one em dash.
If you're on a PC, watch this silent video for a demonstration. Choose to view in HD if your stream is good enough.