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Music Citations: Turabian/Chicago Style: Websites, Blogs, and Social Media

This guide will assist with formatting music citations using the Turabian/Chicago style. For more info, consult Turabian Manual: MUS REFPN203.T8 2007 or consult Chicago Manual online at:

Websites: Turabian 17.5.1

B: Lacoste, Debra, Jan Koláček, and Kate Helsen. "Liberasti enim me apressura." Cantus: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant. Accessed January 23, 2015.

B: Corigliano, John. "Symphony No. 1 (1988)." John Corigliano. Accessed July 22, 2016.

F: 1. Debra Lacoste, Jan Koláček, and Kate Helsen, "Liberasti enim me apressura," Cantus: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Chant, accessed January 23, 2015,

F: 2. John Corigliano, "Symphony No. 1 (1988)," John Corigliano, July 22, 2016,

  • You do not need to list websites in your bibliography unless they are critical to your argument and/or frequently cited.
  • You may not be able to find complete citation information for every website.
  • Try to include as much of the following as you can:
    • Author(s)
    • Title of the page (in quotes)
    • Title or owner of the site
    • Access date
    • The date the site was last modified
    • URL

Blog Entry or Comment: Turabian 17.5.2

B: Ross, Alex. "Music As a Weapon." The Rest Is Noise (blog). June 27, 2016. Accessed July 1, 2016.

N: 1Alex Ross, "Music As a Weapon," The Rest Is Noise (blog), June 27, 2016, accessed July 1, 2016,

  • Blog posts are cited similarly to articles in magazines and newspapers.
  • If the title makes it clear that it is a blog, do not include (blog). For example: The Collaborative Piano Blog
  • Include blog posts in your bibliography only if it is critical to your argument.
  • If you cite several specific posts in your notes, you may cite the blog as a whole in your bibliography.

E-mail or Text Message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.*

Ex: John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012. *If you decide that you want to include a citation for an E-mail or Text Message please let me know and we can format it together!

Social Media: Turabian 17.5.3


B: Chicago Manual of Style. "Is the world ready for the singular they? We thought so back in 1993." Facebook, April 17, 2015.

N: 1Chicago Manual of Style, "Is the world ready for the singular they? We thought so back in 1993," Facebook, April 17, 2015,


B: Conan O'Brien (@CoanaOBrien). "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets." Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.

N: 1Conan O'Brien (@CoanaOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.,

  • Items shared on social media tend to disappear; always keep a screenshot of whatever you cite in case you need to refer to it later.
  • Social Media content is usually cited in the text or notes, only include it in the bibliography if it is critical to your argument.

Image Citation

Image from Electronic Source:

B: Last, First. Title of Work. Medium Type. Name and location of where it is housed. Accessed Month #, YEAR. URL.

Published Photograph: 

N: 1First Name of Photographer Last Name of Photographer, Title of Work, Name and Location of where it is housed, accessed (insert date of access), URL.

Website Evaulation

For further examples, please consult: Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 9th ed., rev. by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018).