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Music Citations: Turabian/Chicago Style: Music Examples Within Papers/Presentations

This guide will assist with formatting music citations using the Turabian/Chicago style. For more info, consult Turabian Manual: MUS REFPN203.T8 2007 or consult Chicago Manual online at:

Creating & Citing Music Examples/Figures

A music example/figure is a quotation, so you must format and cite the example correctly. Turabian terminology uses "figure" instead of "example." You can insert music figure into your paper by photocopying from a score, or using Finale, Sibelius, or other score-writing programs.

Formatting the music figure:
1. Include the clef(s). If the measures you've copied from the score do not include clefs, then add them yourself on each line of the example.

2. Include measure numbers. Remember to use mm. for multiple measures (ms. means "manuscript"). example: mm. 36-39.

3. Give a title to your figure. Typically: Figure Number. Composer First Name Last, Title of work, measure numbers. Footnote subscript.

Figure 7. Johann Sebastian Bach, Adagio from Toccata, Adagio, and Fugue in C Major, BWV 564, mm. 26-31.3


Insert a superscript at the end of your music example title and supply a corresponding footnote.

The footnote gives publication information about the score you used for your example.

The note for the above example is:

³ Johann Sebastian Bach, Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe, vol. 15, Drei Toccaten für Orgel, ed. Wilhelm Rush (Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1867): 258.

For more info....

For more information, see Introduction to Research in Music, by Wingell & Herzog, pp. 210-211 (at DePauw in reference section, REFMT1.W825 2001).