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Citation Guides: APA

This library guide provides assistance in citing sources for papers

APA

This page contains general information about APA style based on the 2009 6th Edition of the APA Publication Manual. The most recent edition of the APA Publication Manual is kept at the Reference Desk at the Roy O West Library, and in the Reference section.

For specific examples of how to format materials, choose the tab for the type of material.

References Page

APA Style requires a Reference List page at the end of research papers. It must be titled References and entries are double spaced throughout (without an extra space between entries).

If you have more than one item by the same author, they are listed as follows, by year of publication. One-author entries precede multiple-author entries.

Twain, M. (1896). Tom Sawyer abroad. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Twain, M. (1899). Following the equator: A journey around the world. New York: Harper &
     Brothers.

In-Text Citations

APA Style uses parenthetical, author-date citations. After a quote, add parentheses containing the author's name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work.

Example: "Thankfully, the poet rings alarm bells" (Gross 2000, p. 80).

After a paraphrase of someone else's ideas, you are not required to add the page number or use quotation marks.

Example: In this book, Gross discusses the response of the poet (Gross 2000).

If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.

Example: "Thankfully, the poet rings alarm bells" (J. Gross 2000, p. 80).

If two authors wrote the work, use all their names.

Example: "Thankfully, the poet rings alarm bells" (Gross, & Judt 2000, p. 80).

If three to five authors wrote the work, use all their names the first time you refer to them, but not subsequently.

Example: "Thankfully, the poet rings alarm bells" (Deák, Gross, & Judt 2000, p. 80).

              "Victims of deportations turned out to be the lucky ones" (Gross, et al., 2000, p. 100).

If six or more authors wrote the work, use just the name of the first author.

Example: "Thankfully, the poet rings alarm bells" (Gross, et al., 2000, p. 80).

 

The above quotes are from: Gross, J. (2000). A tangled web: Confronting stereotypes concerning relations between Poles, Germans, Jews, and Communists. In Deák, I., Gross, J. T., & Judt, T. (Eds.), The politics of retribution in Europe (pp. 74-129). Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Type of Source:   General Example: Entry:

Single Author

  Author, F. F. (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication: Publisher.

  Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

7.02 (18)

Two to Seven Authors

  Author, F. F., & Author S. S. (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication: Publisher.

  Hock, R., Smith, A., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

6.27

Eight or More Authors

  Author, F. F., Author S. S., Author T. T., Author F. F., Author F. F., Author S. S.,...Author L. L.  (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication: Publisher.

  Davidson, W., Sweeney, D., Stampfl, R., Johnson, F., Errman, C., Menszer, G.,...Janet, P. (1988). Retailing management. New York: Wiley.

6.27
Corporate Author

  Author. (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication: Publisher..

  National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1929). The fourth yearbook. New York: J.J. Little and Ives Company.

6.27
No Author

  Title of work. (Year of publication). City of publication: Publisher.

  NAICS desk reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST
      Works.

6.27
Second or Subsequent Edition

  Author, F. F., & Author S. S. (Year of publication). Title of work (2nd ed.). City of publication: Publisher.

  Walker, D. (2006). The geoscience handbook (4th ed.). Alexandria, Virginia: American Geological Institute.

7.02
Edited Book

  Editor, F. F. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication: Publisher.

  Rosenblum, J. (Ed.). (2005). The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide
     for students
. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

7.02
Multi-Volume Work

  Author, F. F. (Year of publication). Title of work. (Volume number(s) consulted) City of publication: Publisher.

  Smith, D. E. (1958). History of Poland. (Vol. 2). New York: Dover Publications.

  Smith, D. E. (1958). History of Poland. (Vols. 1-3). New York: Dover Publications.

7.02 (23)

Book Chapter

  Author, F. F. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work. (page numbers of chapter). City of publication: Publisher.

  Barrett, R. (2005). Shakespeare's women. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 41-44). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

7.02 (25)

Translation

  Author, F. F. (Year of publication). Title of work (A. Translator, Trans.). City of publication: Publisher. (Original work published date).

  Calvino, I. (2000). Why read the classics? (M. McLaughlin, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books. (Original work published 1958).

7.02 (26)
Reference Book

  Author, F. F., & Author S. S. (Year of publication). Title of work. City of publication:Publisher.

  Myers, J., & Wukasch D. (2003). Dictionary of poetic terms. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press.

7.02 (27)
Entry in a Reference Book

  Author, F. F., & Author S. S. (Year of publication). Entry title. In Title of work. (page numbers of entry) City of publication:
     Publisher.

  Myers, J., & Wukasch D. (2003). Irony. In Dictionary of poetic terms. (pp. 176-177). Denton, Texas: University of North
     Texas Press.

7.02
Doctoral Dissertation

  Author, F. F. (Year of publication). Title of work. (Doctoral dissertation, University, Country). Retrieved
     from http://www.website.edu

  Ripley, R. M. (1998). Neural network models for breast cancer prognosis (Doctoral dissertation,
     University of Oxford, England). Retrieved from http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/~ruth/thesis.pdf

7.05
Master's Thesis

  Author, F. F. (Year of publication). Title of work (Master's thesis).

  Harlan, R. J. (1948). A working program in literature for the high school and the home (Master's
     thesis).

7.05

For additional examples, see pages 202-208 in the APA Publication Manual.

Type of Source:   General Example: Entry:

Journal Article With DOI

  Author, F. F., & Author S. S. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. doi: xxxxxx

  Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.70.4.154

7.01
(1)
Journal Article, 8+ Authors

  Author, F. F., Author S. S., Author T. T., Author F. F., Author F. F., Author S. S.,...Author L. L. (Year of
     publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. doi: xxxxxx

  Sol, D., Bacher, S., Reader, S.M., Lefebvre, L., Shipter, A., Ghaet, W.,...Smith, R. (2008). Brain size
     predicts the success of mammal species introduced into novel environments. The American
     Naturalist
, 172(Suppl.), S6-S71. doi: 10.1086/588304

7.01
(2)
Journal Article Without DOI

  Author, F. F., Author S. S., Author T. T. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal,
     Volume(Issue),
Page numbers.

  Author, F. F., & Author S. S. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue).
     Retrieved from http://website.org

  Clark, G., Ward A., & Yarrow, D. (2008). Climate policy's quiet giants. Environment, 50(4), 6-7.

  Green, C., & Halsall, S. (2004). Head start families sharing literature. Early Childhood Research &
     Practice
(ECRP), 6. Retrieved from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v6n2/green.html

7.01
(3)

Magazine Article

  Author, F. F. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume, Page numbers.

  Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 290, 35-40.

7.01
(7)

Online Magazine Article

  Author, F. F. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.website.org

  Masters, C. (2006, December 17). The takeaway diet of 2006. Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com

7.01
(8)

Newspaper Article

  Author, F. F. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, Page numbers.

  Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. The Wall Street Journal, pp. D1-D2.

  Robbery victim dies in sleep. (2008, October 3). The Wall Street Journal, p. C2.

7.01
(10)
Online Newspaper Article

  Author, F. F. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
     http://www.website.org

  Pulliam, R. (2009, July 31). Education innovation starts here. The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved from
     http://www.indystar.com

7.01
(11)
NBER Working Paper

  Author, F. F., Author S. S., Author T. T. (Year of publication). Title of Working Paper. NBER Working
     Paper Number.
Retrieved from National Bureau of Economic Research website: http://website.org

  Henderson, J. V., A. Storeygard, & D. N. Weil. (2009). Measuring Economic Growth From Outer
     Space. NBER Working Paper 15199. Retrieved from National Bureau of Economic Research
     website: http://www.nber.org/papers/w15199.pdf

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(34)

For additional examples, see pages 198-202 in the APA Publication Manual.

Type of Source:   General Example:
Web Page

  Author, F. F. (Date of publication). Title of web page.  Retrieved date, from http://www.website.org

  Jamieson, L. (n.d.) 'Macbeth' Study Guide. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://shakespeare.about.com/
     od/macbeth/tp/Macbeth_Study_Guide.htm

Entire Website

  When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.

  The APA has a great website (http://www.apastyle.org).

E-mail

  Because they do not provide recoverable data, e-mail communications are not included in the reference list.
  Cite e-mail communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator,
  and provide as exact a date as possible.

  R. K. Szpunar (personal communication, April 18, 2009)

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Librarian Info

Ruth Szpunar's picture
Ruth Szpunar
I'm at the Reference Desk on Tuesday nights from 7-10 PM, on Thursday from 3-5 PM, and on Friday from 2-5 PM. Feel free to stop by, or to send me an e-mail with a question.