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Citation Guides: Turabian (N/B)

This library guide provides assistance in citing sources for papers

Turabian

Turabian Style

This page contains general information about Turabian Notes/Bibliography Style.  For specific examples of how to format materials, mouse over the heading for this page and then click on the type of material from the menu.

Turabian Style has two options for paper formats:

  • Notes/Bibliography Style
  • Parenthetical Citations/Reference List Style

You cannot mix and match these styles; only one style should be used in each paper.

Notes/Bibliography Style

When you use the Notes/Bibliography Style, you cite a source by placing a superscript number at the end of the sentence that refers to that source. The numbers correspond to a note with the same number.  The notes are either in the footer of a paper (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). At the end of the paper, all sources are listed on a Bibliography page alphabetically by author. 

If you have more than one item by the same author, they are listed as follows, alphabetized by title.

Twain, Mark. Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1899.

---. Tom Sawyer Abroad. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896.

Type of Source:  General Example: Entry:
Key

 N: Note

 B: Bibliographic Entry
All

Journal with Continuous Pagination

 N:          1. Sarah Graham, "Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s," Journal of American Studies 40 (2006): 157.

 B: Graham, Sarah. "Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s." Journal of
      American Studies
40 (2006): 156-159.

17.2.2

Journal with Each Issue Paged Separately

 N:         2. Carolyn Simmons and Karen Becker-Olsen, "Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships," Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4 (2006): 160.

 B: Simmons, Carolyn and Karen Becker-Olsen. "Achieving Marketing Objectives through
      Social Sponsorships." Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4 (2006): 154-169.

17.2.4

Magazine

 N:       3. Stanley Reed, "Seeing Past the War," Business Week, August 21, 2006, 35.

 B: Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, August 21, 2006.

17.3

Newspaper

 N:        4. Zachary Seward, "Colleges Expand Early Admissions," Wall Street Journal, December 14, 2006, Eastern edition.

 B: Seward,  Zachary. "Colleges Expand Early Admissions." Wall Street Journal,
     December 14, 2006, Eastern edition.

17.4

For additional examples, see pages 181-188 in the Turabian Manual.

Type of Source:  General Example: Entry:
Key

 N: Note

 B: Bibliographic Entry
All

Single Author

 N:        1. Robert W. Gutman, Mozart: A Cultural Biography (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 188-189.

 B:  Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999.

17.1.1

Two or Three Authors

 N:        2. Randolph Hock and Gary Price, The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher (Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004), 103-7.

 B: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the
     Serious Searcher.
Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004.

17.1.1

Four or More Authors

 N:        3. William Davidson et al., Retailing Management, 6th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1988), 15-35.

 B: Davidson, William, Daniel Sweeney, Susan Ewer, and Ronald Stampfl. Retailing
       Management
. 6th ed. New York: Wiley, 1988.

17.1.1

No Author

 N:        4. NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference (Indianapolis: JIST Works, 2000), 74-9.

 B:  NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference.
     Indianapolis: JIST Works, 2000.

17.1.1
Edited Book

 N:        5. Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey, ed. Barbara M. Benedict and Deirdre Le Faye (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 95-9.

 B: Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey. Edited by Barbara M. Benedict and Deirdre Le Faye. New
           York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

17.1.1
Translation

 N:        6. Italo Calvino, Why Read the Classics? trans. Martin McLaughlin (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), 55-65.

 B: Calvino, Italo.  Why Read the Classics? Translated by Martin McLaughlin. New York: Vintage
            Books, 2000.

17.1.1
Anthology

 N:        7. John Rosenblum and Joseph Smith, eds., The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 256-300.

 B: Rosenblum, John, and Joseph Smith, eds. The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A
            Comprehensive Guide for Students
. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2005.

17.1.1
Corporate Author

 N:        8. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, The Fourth Yearbook (New York: J.J. Little and Ives Company, 1929), 200-5.

 B: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The Fourth Yearbook. New York: J.J. Little and
            Ives Company, 1929.

17.1.1
Duplicate Author

 N:        9. Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1903), 32-42.

           10. Mark Twain, The Diary of Adam and Eve (New York: Modern Library, 1906), 67-8.

 B: Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1903.

---. The Diary of Adam and Eve. New York: Modern Library, 1906.

16.2.2
Second or Subsequent Edition

 N:        11. Douglas Walker, The Geoscience Handbook, 4th ed. (Alexandria, Virginia: American Geological Institute, 2006), 84-96.

 B: Walker, Douglas. The Geoscience Handbook. 4th ed. Alexandria, Virginia: American
            Geological Institute, 2006.

17.1.3
Republished Book

 N:        12. Jane Austen, Sense and Sensibility, (1811; repr., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 203-20.

 B: Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. 1811. Reprint, New York: Cambridge University Press,
            2006.

17.1.
Multi-Volume Work

 N:        13. Drew E. Smith, History of Poland (New York: Dover Publications, 1958), 2:87-99.

 B: Smith, Drew E. History of Poland. Vol. 2. New York: Dover Publications, 1958.

 N:        14. Drew E. Smith, History of Poland. (New York: Dover Publications, 1958), 3:46-98.

 B: Smith, Drew E. History of Poland. 3 vols. New York: Dover Publications, 1958.

17.1.4
Series

 N:        15. Nathaniel Dean, ed., African Americans in Mathematics, Discrete Mathamatics and Theoretical Computer Science (New York: Greenwood Society, 2000), 67-87.

 B: Dean, Nathaniel, ed. African Americans in Mathematics. Discrete Mathamatics and
           Theoretical Computer Science. New York: Greenwood Society, 2000.

17.1.5

Chapter in an Anthology

 N:        16. Robert F. Wilson, "William Shakespeare's Theater," In The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, ed. Joseph Rosenblum (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 50-5.

 B: Wilson, Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." In The Greenwood Companion to
         Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students
, edited by Joseph Rosenblum,
         47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005.

17.1.8
Introduction, Preface, Foreward, or Afterword

 N:        17. Charles Beem, introduction to The Lioness Roared: The Problems of Female Rule in English History (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 3-10.

 B: Beem, Charles. Introduction to The Lioness Roared: The Problems of Female Rule in English
            History
. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

 N:        18. Miles Rizvi, Susan Gowher, and Guido Bertucci, foreword to Decentralizing Governance: Emerging Concepts and Practices, by Dennis A. Rondinelli (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2007), ii.

 B: Rizvi, Miles, Susan Gowher, and Guido Bertucci. Foreword to Decentralizing Governance:
            Emerging Concepts and Practices
, by Dennis A. Rondinelli. Washington, D.C.: Brookings
            Institution Press, 2007.

17.1.8
Multiple Parts of an Edited Book

 N:        19. Rachel Barrett, "Shakespeare's Women," in The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, ed. Joseph Rosenblum (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 41-44.

           20. Willson, Robert F., "William Shakespeare's Theater," in Rosenblum, 47-64.

           21. Barrett, 45.

           22. Willson, 65.

 B: Barrett, Rachel. "Shakespeare's Women." In Rosenblum, 41-44.

 Rosenblum, Joseph, ed. 2005. The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

 Willson, Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." In Rosenblum, 47-64
17.1.8
The Bible

 N:        23. Dan. 3:7 [NAB].

 B: Do not include the Bible on reference list.

17.5.2
Reference Book

 N:        24. John Myers and David Wukasch. Dictionary of Poetic Terms (Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 2003), 56.

 B: Myers, John, and David Wukasch. Dictionary of Poetic Terrms. Denton, Texas: University of
           North Texas Press, 2003.

17.5.3
Dissertation

 N:        25. Ruth M. Ripley, "Neural Networks for Breast Cancer Prognosis." (PhD diss., Oxford University, 1998), 23.

 B: Ripley, Ruth M. "Neural Networks for Breast Cancer Prognosis." PhD diss., Oxford University,
           1998.

17.6.1

For additional examples, see pages 162-181, 188-193 in the Turabian Manual.

Type of Source:  General Example: Entry:
Key

 N: Note

 B: Bibliographic Entry
All
Online Book

 N:        1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice. (Chicago: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918), http://books.google.com (accessed July 30, 2008).

 B: Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Chicago: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918.
           http://books.google.com (accessed July 30, 2008).

17.1.10

Article from a Library Database

 N:        2. Rosemary Ward, “Background Check,” Psychology Today 39, no. 2 (March-April 2006), http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19824463&site=ehost-live (accessed December 21, 2006).

 B: Ward, Rosemary. “Background Check.” Psychology Today 39, no. 2 (March-April 2006).
       http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19824463&site=ehost-live
       (accessed December 21, 2006).

17.2.7

Online Article from Magazine Website

 N:        3. Coco Masters, “The Takeaway Diet of 2006,” Time, December 17, 2006, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article.html (accessed January 10, 2007).

 B: Masters, Coco. “The Takeaway Diet of 2006.” Time, December 17, 2006. http://www.time.com
       /time/magazine/article.html (accessed January 10, 2007).

17.3

Entire Website

 N:        4. The Library of Congress, "American Memory." http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html (accessed July 30, 2008).

 B: The Library of Congress. "American Memory." http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html
       (accessed July 30, 2008).

17.7.1
Website Page

 N:        5. Amanda Mabillard, "Shakespeare's Characters." About.com, http://shakespeare.about.com/library/weekly/aa090600a.htm (accessed July 31, 2008).

 B: Mabillard, Amanda. "Shakespeare's Characters." About.com. http://shakespeare.about.com/library
            /weekly/aa090600a.htm (accessed July 31, 2008).

17.7.1

For additional examples, see pages 185, 193-194, and 198-199 in the Turabian Manual.

Type of Source: General Example: Entry:
Key

N: Note

B: Bibliographic Entry
All
Personal Interview

N:        1. George W. Bush, interview by author, Indianapolis, IN, March 10, 2007.

B: Do not include on bibliography.

17.6.3
Painting

N:        2. Claude Monet, Coquelicots (Poppies, Near Argenteuil), 1873, Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

B: Do not include on bibliography.

17.8.1
Sculpture

N:        3. Michelangelo, David, 1501-4, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence.

B: Do not include on bibliography.

17.8.1
Performance

N:        4. The Nutcracker, Butler Ballet, Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis, December 2, 2006.

B: Do not include on bibliography.

17.8.2

Film

N:        5. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg, Universal Pictures, 1982.

B: Do not include on bibliography.

17.8.2
 TV Program

N:        6. Seinfeld, “The Soup Nazi,” episode 706, November 2, 1995.

B: Do not include on bibliography.

17.8.3
Entire Music Albums

N:        7. The Beatles, Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band, Capitol Records, LP, 1967.

B: The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records. LP. 1967.

17.8.4

Spoken Word Recording

N:        8. Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird, read by Sally Darling, Recorded Books, cassette, 1988.

B: Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Read by Sally Darling. Recorded Books. Audiocassette.
      1988.

17.8.4

Recorded Film

N:        9. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, DVD, directed by Chris Columbus (Burbank, CA: Warner, 2002).

B: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. DVD. Directed by Chris Columbus. Burbank, CA: Warner,
     2002.

17.8.5

For additional examples, see pages 195, 200-205 in the Turabian Manual.

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Librarian Info

Ruth Szpunar's picture
Ruth Szpunar
I'm at the Reference Desk on Tuesday nights from 7-10 PM, on Thursday from 3-5 PM, and on Friday from 2-5 PM. Feel free to stop by, or to send me an e-mail with a question.