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Citation Guides: Turabian (P/RL)

This library guide provides assistance in citing sources for papers

Turabian

Turabian Style

This page contains general information about Turabian Parenthetical Citations/Reference List Style.  For specific examples of how to format materials, mouse over the heading for this page and then click on the type of material from the menu.

Turabian Style has two options for paper formats:

  • Notes/Bibliography Style
  • Parenthetical Citations/Reference List Style

You cannot mix and match these styles; only one style should be used in each paper.

Parenthetical Citations/Reference List Style

If you use the Parenthetical Citations/Reference List Style, then you cite a source by placing a parenthetical citation next to your reference to that source. If you are using a direct quotation, the citation comes immediately after the quotation, otherwise it comes at the end of the sentence before the final punctuation mark.   At the end of the paper, all sources are listed on a References page alphabetically by author. (This style is also known as the Author-Date Style.)

If you have more than one item by the same author, they are listed as follows, by year of publication.

Twain, Mark. 1896. Tom Sawyer abroad. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Twain, Mark. 1899. Following the equator: A journey around the world. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Type of Source:  General Example: Entry:
Key

 R: Reference List Entry

 P: Parenthetical Note

All

Journal with Continuous Pagination

 R: Graham, Sarah. 2006. Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s.
     Journal of American Studies
40:156-159.

 P: (Graham 2006, 157)

19.2.2

Journal with Each Issue Paged Separately

 R: Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. 2006. Achieving marketing
     objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing 70, no.
     4:154-169.

 P: (Simmons and Becker-Olsen 2006, 160)

19.2.2

Magazine

 R: Reed, Stanley. 2006. Seeing past the war. Business Week, August 21.

 P: (Reed 2006, 12)

19.3

Newspaper

 R: Seward, Zachary. 2006. Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street
    Journal
. December 14. Eastern edition.

 P: (Seward 2006)

19.4

 For additional examples, see pages 247-254 in the Turabian Manual

Type of Source: General Example: Entry:
Key

 R: Reference List Entry

 P: Parenthetical Note

 

Single Author

 R: Gutman, Robert W. 1999. Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

 P: (Gutman 1999, 45)

19.1.1

Two or Three Authors

 R: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. 2004. The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A
     guide for the serious searcher.
Medford: CyberAge Books.

 P: (Hock and Price 2004, 103-7)

19.1.1

Four or More Authors

 R: Davidson, William, Daniel Sweeney, Susan Ewer, and Ronald Stampfl. 1988. Retailing
     management
. 6th ed. New York: Wiley.

 P: (Davidson et al. 1988, 15-35)

19.1.1

No Author

 R: NAICS desk reference: The North American industry classification system desk
     reference
. 2000. Indianapolis: JIST Works.

 P: (NAICS desk reference 2000, 74-9)

19.1.1
Edited Book

 R: Austen, Jane. 2006. Northanger abbey. Ed. Barbara M. Benedict and Deirdre Le Faye.
     New York: Cambridge University Press.

 P: (Austen 2006, 95-9)

19.1.1
Translation

 R: Calvino, Italo. 2000. Why read the classics? Trans. Martin McLaughlin. New York: Vintage
     Books.

 P: (Calvino 2000, 55-65)

19.1.1
Anthology

 R: Rosenblum, John, and Joseph Smith, eds. 2005. The Greenwood companion to
     Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students
. Westport, CT: Greenwood
     Press.

 P: (Rosenblum and Smith 2005, 256-300)

19.1.1
Corporate Author

 R: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1929. The fourth yearbook. New York: J.J.
     Little and Ives Company.

 P: (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1929, 200-5)

19.1.1
Duplicate Author

 R: Twain, Mark. 1903. The adventures of Tom Sawyer. New York, Harper & Brothers.

 ---. 1906. The diary of Adam and Eve. New York: Modern Library.

 P: (Twain 1903, 32-42)

 (Twain 1906, 67-8)

18.2.1
Second or Subsequent Edition

 R: Walker, Douglas. 2006. The geoscience handbook. 4th ed. Alexandria, Virginia:
     American Geological Institute.

 P: (Walker 2006, 84-96)

19.1.4
Republished Book

 R: Austen, Jane. 2006. Sense and sensibility. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Orig. pub. 1811.]

 P: (Austen 2006, 203-20)

19.1.4
Multi-Volume Work

 R: Smith, Drew E. 1958. History of Poland. Vol. 2. New York: Dover Publications.

 P: (Smith 1958, 2:87-99)

 R: Smith, Drew E. 1958. History of Poland. 3 vols. New York: Dover Publications.

 P: (Smith 1958, 3:46-98)

19.1.5
Series

 R: Dean, Nathaniel, ed. 2000. African Americans in mathematics. Discrete Mathamatics
    and Theoretical Computer Science. New York: Greenwood Society.

 P: (Dean 2000, 67-87)

19.1.6

Chapter in an Anthology

 R: Willson, Robert F. 2005. William Shakespeare's theater. In The Greenwood
    companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students
, ed. Joseph
     Rosenblum, 47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

 P: (Wilson 2005, 50-5)

19.1.9
Introduction, Preface, Foreward, or Afterword

 R: Beem, Charles. 2006. Introduction to The lioness roared: The problems of female rule in
     English history
. New  York: Palgrave Macmillan.

 P: (Beem 2006, 3-10)

 R: Rizvi, Miles, Susan Gowher, and Guido Bertucci. 2007. Foreword to Decentralizing
     governance: Emerging concepts and practices
, by Dennis A. Rondinelli.
     Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

 P: (Rizvi. Gowher, and Bertucci 2007, ii)

19.1.9
Multiple Parts of an Edited Book

 R: Barrett, Rachel. 2005. Westport, CT. In Rosenblum 2005, 41-44.

 Rosenblum, Joseph, ed. 2005. The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

 Willson, Robert F. 2005. Westport, CT. In Rosenblum 2005, 47-64.

 P: (Barrett 2005, 42-3)

 (Gutman 2005, 49-50)

19.1.9
The Bible

 R: Do not include the Bible on reference list.

 P: (Dan. 3:7 [NAB])

19.5.2
Reference Book

 R: Myers, John, and David Wukasch. 2003. Dictionary of poetic terms. Denton, Texas:
     University of North Texas Press.

 P: (Myers and Wukasch 2003, 56)

19.5.3
Dissertation

 R: Ripley, Ruth M. 1998. Neural networks for breast cancer prognosis. PhD diss., Oxford
     University.

 P: (Ripley 1998, 34)

19.6.1

For additional examples, see pages 229-247, 254-258 in the Turabian Manual.

Type of Source:  General Example: Entry:
Key

 R: Reference List Entry

 P: Parenthetical Note

 

Article from a Library Database

 R: Ward, Rosemary. 2006. Background check. Psychology Today 39, no. 2 (March-
      April): 34-35. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&
      AN=19824463&site=ehost-live (accessed December 21, 2006.

 P: (Ward 2006, 35)

19.2.8

Online Article from Magazine Website

 R: Masters, Coco. 2006. The takeaway diet of 2006. Time, December 17.
     http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article.html (accessed January 10, 2007).

 P: (Masters 2006)

19.3

Entire Website

 R: The Library of Congress. American Memory. http://memory.loc.gov
     /amme/index.html (accessed July 30, 2008).

 P: (The Library of Congress)

19.7.1
Website Page

 R: Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespeare's Characters. About.com,
          http://shakespeare.about.com/library/weekly/aa090600a.htm (accessed July
          31, 2008).

 P: (Mabillard)

17.7.1

For additional examples, see pages 250-254, 263-265 in the Turabian Manual.

Type of Source:  General Example: Entry:
Key

 R: Reference List Entry

 P: Parenthetical Note

All

Personal Interview

 R: Bush, George W. 2007. Interview by author. Indianapolis, IN. March 10.

 P: (Bush 2007)

19.6.3
Painting

 R: Do not include on reference list.

 P: (Claude Monet, Coquelicots (Poppies, Near Argenteuil), 1873, Musee d'Orsay, Paris)

19.8.1
Sculpture

 R: Do not include on reference list.

 P: (Michelangelo, David, 1501-4, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence)

19.8.1
Performance

 R: Do not include on reference list.

 P: (The Nutcracker, Butler Ballet, Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis, December 2, 2006)

19.8.2

Film

 R: Do not include on reference list. 

 P: (E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg, Universal Pictures, 1982)

19.8.2
TV Program

 R: Do not include on reference list.

 P: (Seinfeld, "The Soup Nazi," episode 706, November 2, 1995)

19.8.3
Entire Music Albums

 R: The Beatles. 1967. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records. LP.

 P: (Beetles 1967)

19.8.4
Spoken Word Recording

 R: Lee, Harper. 1988. To Kill a Mockingbird. Read by Sally Darling. Recorded Books.
     Audiocassette.

 P: (Lee 1988)

19.8.4

Recorded Film

 R: Kloves, Steven. 2002. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. DVD. Directed by Chris
     Columbus. Burbank, CA: Warner.

 P: (Kloves 2002).

19.8.5

For additional examples, see pages 261, 265-270 in the Turabian Manual.

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